Lavender flower

SHM-001/3
Lavandulae flos
Dried flower of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (L. officinalis Chaix). Content minimum 13 mL/kg of essential oil (anhydrous drug).
Binomial name:
Lavandula (lat. Lavandula angustifolia Mill.)
Назва сорту:
«Lavandula» ©
Characters:
Odour: fragrant, aromatic; taste: aromatic, bitter, somewhat camphoraceous.

An aromatic shrub, 1–2 m high. Branches grey-brown to dark brown with long fl owering and short leafy shoots, bark longitudinally peeling. Leaves clustered on leafy shoots, widely spaced on fl owering shoots; petiole very short; blade linear-lanceolate to linear, 17 mm long, 2 mm wide on leafy shoots, 2–6 cm long, 3–6 mm wide on fl owering shoots; grey stellate tomentose, base attenuate, margin entire, revolute, apex obtuse.

Infl orescence a crowded, interrupted or nearly continuous spike, 2–8 cm long; verticillasters numerous, with 6–10 fl owers, upper ones densely crowded; peduncle about three times longer than the spike; bracts papery, rhombic-ovate, 3–8 mm long, rust coloured when dry; bracteoles absent or up to 2.5 mm long, pedicel 1.0–1.5 mm long; calyx 4–7 mm long, densely grey stellate tomentose outside, with 13 longitudinal ribs, upper lip entire, appendage obcordate, lower lip four-toothed; corolla 10–12 mm long, blue, base subglabrous, throat and limb glandular hairy, upper lips straight, lower lips spreading. Nutlets narrowly cylindrical.

Contains

Contains 1.0–3.0% essential oil, of which the major constituents are linalyl acetate (30–55%) and linalool (20–50%). Other constituents include β-ocimene, 1,8-cineole (1,8-cineol, cineol, cineole, eucalyptol), camphor and caryophyllene oxide. The structures of linalyl acetate and linalool are resented below.

Pharmacology

Antimicrobial activity
Aqueous, chloroform, hexane and methanol extracts of Flos Lavandulae, 60.0 μg/ml, inhibited the growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae in vitro.
A methanol extract of the fl owers inhibited the growth of Helicobacter pylori (the bacterium associated with peptic ulcer disease) in vitro, minimum inhibitory concentration 100.0 μg/ml.

Antioxidant activity
A 50% ethanol extract of the fl owers had antioxidant activity in vitro, median effective dose 45.0 mg/ml.

Antiulcer activity
Intragastric administration of 400.0 mg/kg body weight (bw) of an 80% ethanol extract of the flowers to mice signifi cantly (P < 0.05) reduced ethanol-induced gastric ulcerations by 62.9%.

Uterine stimulating activity
A hot aqueous extract of the fl owers (dose not specified) stimulated uterine contractions in isolated pregnant guinea-pig uterus.

Anticonvulsant and sedative activities
Intraperitoneal administration of 2.5 g/kg bw of linalool to rodents protected against convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazole, picrotoxin and electroshock. In mice, intraperitoneal administration of 2.5 g/kg bw of linalool interfered with glutamate function and delayed N-methyld-aspartate-induced convulsions. Linalool acts as a competitive antagonist of [3H]-lutamate binding and as a non-competitive antagonist of [3H]-dizocilpine binding in mouse cortical membranes, suggesting interference of glutamatergic transmission. The effects of linalool on [3H]-glutamate uptake and release in mouse cortical synaptosomes were investigated. Linalool reduced potassium-stimulated glutamate release. These data suggest that linalool interferes with elements of the excitatory glutamatergic transmission.

Adverse reactions
No information available.

Medicinal uses

Uses supported by clinical data
None.

Uses described in pharmacopoeias and well established documents
Symptomatic treatment of restlessness, insomnia, and as a carminative and antispasmodic for gastrointestinal disorders of nervous origin. Externally in balneotherapy for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders.

Uses described in traditional medicine
As a diuretic and an emmenagogue, and for the treatment of burns, diarrhoea, headaches, sore throats and wounds.

Terms and time of storage

Keep it in isolation in a dry, well-ventilated and sheltered place. Protected from moisture. Recommended storage temperature is 18-20 ° С and humidity of air is 30-40%. Shelf life: 3 years.

References

  1. African pharmacopoeia. Vol. 1. Lagos, Nigeria, Organization of African Unity, Scientifi c, Technical and Research Commission, 1985.
  2. Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine. Standardization of single drugs of Unani medicine – part III. New Delhi, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, 1992.
  3. European pharmacopoeia, 3rd ed. Suppl. 2001. Strasbourg, Council of Europe, 2000.
  4. Chiej R. Encyclopedia of medicinal plants, 2nd ed. Rome, MacDonald, 1984.
  5. Oyen LPA, Nguyen XD, eds. Plant resources of South-east Asia, No. 19.  Essential-oil plants. Bogor, PROSEA, 1999.
  6. Hänsel R et al., eds. Hagers Handbuch der pharmazeutischen Praxis. Bd 5, Drogen E–O, 5th ed. [Hager’s handbook of  pharmaceutical practice. Vol. 5,
    Drugs E–O, 5th ed.] Berlin, Springer, 1993.
  7. Zahedi E. Botanical dictionary. Scientifi c names of plants in English, French,
    German, Arabic and Persian languages. Tehran, Tehran University Publications, 1959.
  8. Schlimmer JL. Terminologie médico-pharmaceutique et française-persane, 2nd ed. [French-Persian medico-pharmaceutical terminology.] Tehran, University of Tehran Publications, 1979.
  9. Farnsworth NR, ed. NAPRALERT database. Chicago, IL, University of Illinois at Chicago, 10 January 2001 production (an online database available directly through the University of Illinois at Chicago or through the Scientifi c and Technical Network (STN) of Chemical Abstracts Services).
  10. Bisset NG. Herbal drugs and  phytopharmaceuticals. Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press, 1994.
  11. British herbal pharmacopoeia, 2nd ed. Part 2. Cowling, British Herbal Medicine Association, 1979.
  12. Wagner H, Bladt S. Plant drug analysis – a thin-layer chromatography atlas, 2nd ed. Berlin, Springer, 1996.

Places of cultivation

Brovakhy, Korsun-Shevchenkivsky district of Cherkasy Oblast, Ukraine 19420